Special Forces Training
Restrictions to Advisory Effort by Congress. The U.S. Congress place restrictions on the number of advisors in country (limited to 55) and their roles (no combat). Despite that small number and the no combat restriction - the U.S. military took some losses.
Effectiveness of the U.S. Advisory Effort. The advisors were effective at a number of levels and in a variety of ways. The military advisors were effective in improving the ability of the El Salvador Armed Forces (ESAF) to use their equipment (zero weapons, employ mortars), conduct patrols (raids, ambushes, etc.), and conduct company and battalion level operations. Equally important was the professionalization of the ESAF and the improvement of the ESAF human rights record. However, the advancements made in the military establishment would not mean much if the El Salvadorian government did not institute a number of reforms. The reforms undercut the support of the insurgents (FMLN).
The El Salvador Army grew from 12,000 to 55,000 men during the period of conflict. It became a professional counterinsurgency force that prevented the collapse of the El Salvadorian government and kept the FMLN at bay.
Cale, MAJ Paul P., The United States Military Advisory
Group in El Salvador, 1979-1992, CSC, 1996. A thesis that the U.S.
MAG in El Salvador helped an emerging democratic nation combat a
communist supported insurgent threat.
King, MSG Brian. Special Forces in El Salvador and Afghanistan,
USASMA Digital Library, March 18, 2008. Paper for the United States
Sergeants Major Academy, Class # 58. The paper compares and contrasts
Special Forces counterinsurgency during the 13 year war in El Salvador
and the current war in Afghanistan.
Ramsey, Robert D., Advising Indigenous Forces: American Advisors
in Korea, Vietnam, and El Salvador, Global War on Terrorism
Occasional Paper 18, Combat Studies Institute Press, Fort Leavenworth,
Rosello, Victor M. LTC, "Lessons From El Salvador", Parameters,
Winter 1993-94, pages 100-108.
Sepp, Kalev. I., Best Practices in Counterinsurgency, Naval
Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA. ADA485146, June 2005.
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