Personnel Recovery (PR) is an important mission that all of the
military services are responsible for. Each of the services has units
specially trained to conduct the PR mission.
"Personnel recovery is the sum of military,
diplomatic, and civil efforts to affect the recovery and reintegration
of isolated personnel. Isolated personnel are those US military, DoD
civilians, and DoD contractor personnel (and others designated by the
President or Secretary of Defense) who are separated from thier unit
while participating in a US-sponsored military activity or mission and
who are, or may be, in a situation where they must survive,evade,
resist, or escape."
Personnel Recovery Websites - Military
Air Force Rescue Coordination Center. CONR-1AF (AFNORTH)
Joint Personnel Recovery Agency (JPRA)
Joint Personnel Recovery Agency (JPRA) Facebook
Joint Personnel Recovery Agency by WikipediA
Army Personnel Recovery Proponent Office (PRPO).
Defense POW/MIA Accounting Agency (DPAA)
Personnel Recovery Mission Software (PRMS)
U.S. Coast Guard Search and Rescue (CG-SAR)
U.S. Pacific Command (USPACOM) J358 Personnel Recovery
Angel Thunder PR Exercise. Davis-Monthan Air Force Base.
Angel Thunder PR Exercise - Facebook
Angel Thunder - DVIDS
Personnel Recovery Websites - Non-Military
Joint Personnel Recovery Annual Conference
Personnel Recovery and Combat Search & Rescue Forum
Mountain Rescue Association
NASA Search and Rescue (SAR)
National Association for Search and Rescue (NASAR)
Rescue Coordination Centers (RCCs). NOAA.
Search and Rescue Satellite Aided Tracking (SARSAT). NOAA.
USAF Pararescue. That Others May Live.
Afghan War News - PR Pubs and Online Training Resources
PR Group - LinkedIn
Personnel Recovery References
CJCS, Personnel Recovery, CJCSI 3270.01B, 23 January 2015.
This instruction implements DoD PR policy responsibilities.
CJCS. Department of Defense Survival, Evasion, Resistance and
Escape Psychology Program, CJCSM 3500.11 Series.
Department of Defense Instructions
DoD. Code of Conduct (CoC) Training and Education, DoD
Instruction 1300.7, 8 December 2000.
DoD. Isolated Personnel Training for DoD Civilian and
Contractors, DoD Instruction 1300.23, 20 August 2003.
DoD. Non-Conventional Assisted Recovery in the Department of
Defense, DoD Instruction 2310.6, October 13, 2000.
DoD, Personnel Recovery and 406 MHz Search and Rescue (SAR)
Emergency Beacons in the Department of Defense, January 11, 2013.
Incorporating Change 1, Effective April 25, 2016.
DoD. DoD Personnel Recovery - Reintegration of Recovered
Personnel, DoD Instruction 3002.03, 15 July 2013. Incorporating
Change 1, April 26, 2016.
DoD. DoD Personnel Recovery - Non-conventional Assisted Recovery
(NAR), DoD Instruction 3002.04, November 17, 2014
DoD. Personnel Recover (PR) Education and Training, DoD
Instruction O-3002.05, April 12, 2016.
DoD. Intelligence Support to Personnel Recovery, DoD
Instruction 3115.10E, 24 March 2006.
Department of Defense Directives
DoD. Training and Education to Support the Code of Conduct (CoC),
DoD Directive 1300.7, 8 December 2000.
DoD. Personnel Recovery, Directive 2310.2, December 22, 2000
DoD. Defense Prisoner of War/Missing Personnel Office (DPMO),
DoD Directive 5110.10, 21 September 2005.
Department of Defense Joint Publications
DoD. Personnel Recovery, Joint Publication 3-50, December
DoD. Noncombatant Evacuation Operations, JP 3-68, 23
Department of Army Field Manuals
DA, Special Forces Personnel Recovery, FM 3-05.231, June
DA, Army Personnel Recovery, FM 3-50, September 2014.
DA, Army Personnel Recovery, FM 3-50.1, November 2011.
Department of Army Policy
DA, Department of the Army Personnel Policy Guidance for Overseas
Contingency Operations, 1 July 2009, (updated 22 May 2012).
HQDA, ALARACT 098/2010, Updated Guidance for Personnel Recovery
Mission Software (PRMS) and Pre-CONUS Travel File (PROFILE).
Department of Army Regulations
DA, Personnel Recovery, Army Regulation 525-28, 5 March 2010
CALL, Army Personnel Recovery Handbook, No. 09-25, April
USMC. Policy for Personnel Recovery and Repatriation, MCO
3460.2, 2 December 2002
United Kingdom. Joint Personnel Recovery, Joint Warfare
Publication 3-66, April 2003.
Department of the Navy. Personnel Recovery. OPNAV
Instruction 1000.24C, February 12, 2009.
http://doni.daps.dla.mil/Directives/ . . . /1000.24C.pdf
HUMINT References, Deputy Chief of Staff, G-2
USAID, Personnel Recovery Program, ADS Chapter 572, 23 Feb
Code of Conduct - Executive Order 10631
Personnel Recovery Training
Personnel Recovery Education & Training Center (PRETC)
Personnel Recovery Academy
Personnel Recovery - Online training by Doctrine Networked Education
Defense Imagery Management Operations Center (DIMOC). PR CD/DVD
courses available at this site.
Papers about Personnel Recovery
White House. FACT SHEET: U.S. Government
Hostage Policy, June 24, 2015
920th Rescue Wing. 304th Rescue Squadron Fact
Sheet, August 7, 2014.
Villamizar, MAJ Cesar Rolon and MAJ Andres
Fernandez Osorio, "The Challenge of Combat Search and Rescue for
Colombian National Army Aviation, Global ECCO, November 2013.
Fairchild Air Force Base. Joint Personnel
Recovery Agency Fact Sheet, July 15, 2013.
Falcetto, MAJ Nicholas. "Tactical Personnel
Recovery: Bridging the Gap Between TTPs and the Dedicated PR Structure",
Infantry Online, Fort Benning. May-June 2013.
Rowell, LtCol William J., Whole of Government Approach to
Personnel Recovery, United States Army War College, 2012.
Joint Air Power Competence Centre, Personnel Recovery: That
Others May Live to Return With Honor - A Primer, January 2011.
Ecklund, Marshall V. and Michael A. McNerney. Personnel Recovery
Operations for Special Operations Forces in Urban Environments: Modeling
Successful Overt and Clandestine Methods of Recovery, June 2004.
Thesis for the Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California.
Patrick, CW4 John D. and Major Eric A. Patterson, "SF Personnel
Recovery: Some Thoughts on Planning", Special Warfare, Vol. 16,
No. 3, February 2004.
Patterson, Eric A., Unconventional Assisted Recovery (UAR)
Historical Case Study Analysis and Quantitative Feasibility Assessment,
2001. Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California.
Videos about Personnel Recovery
DoD, Operation Angel Thunder 2015 Exercise Events,
YouTube.com, June 13, 2015.
DoD, Personnel Recovery Training, April 18, 2015. the 303rd
Expeditionary Rescue Squadron conducts personnel recovery training and
Aerial Refueling, outside of Camp Lemmonier, Djibouti, Africa.
Blood Chits. Personnel designated as having a high-risk of capture
(Special Forces, pilots, CIA agents, etc.) are issued blood chits. These
are carried to request aid from people in enemy territory. A reward is
promised to anyone assisting the person to safety. The blood chit is
easily folded, made of a waterproof cloth, is regionally based, and in
several languages. They are also serial numbered. Learn more about
blood chits on the website of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
Read also JPRA
Blood Chits on the JPRA website.
Evasion Charts (EVCs). The EVC is primarily a
navigation aid intended to assist personnel isolated in uncertain or
hostile environments. In addition to the map, EVCs contain survival and
evasion marginalia. The EVCs are made of Tyvek and are strong, durable,
Isolated Personnel Guidance (IPG). IPGs and IPG
Summaries provide concise SERE and PR information and guidance for
specific countries and geographic areas to operational planners, SERE
briefers, and US military an dDoD contract and civilian personnel.
Avialable only on classified networks.
Isolated Personnel Case Based Studies. The Isolated
Personnel Case Based Studies briefly describe significant events
experienced by an individual during isolation or detention.
Personal Locator Beacons (PLBs). PLBs are portable
radio distress signaling units that operate much the same as Emergency
Position Indicating Radio Beacons (for use on boats/vessels) or
Emergency Locating Transmitters (for use on aircraft). PLBs can be
activated manually and operate exclusively on 406MHz. All PLBs have a
built-in, low-power homing beacon that transmits on 121.5 MHz. This
allows rescue forces to home in on a beacon once the 406 MHz satellite
system has gotten them in the general area. Read more about
PLBs on the AFNORTH website. Read about
beacon development on the NASA SAR website.
Pointee-Talkees. A language guide that contains
English phrases, the same phrases written in a foreign langauge, and the
foreign phrase writtne phonetically. The evader selects the desired
English phrase, points to the translation of the phrase beside it.
Personnel Recovery Terminology
Combat Search and Rescue (CSAR). The tactics, techniques, and
procedures performed by forces to effect the recovery of isolated
personnel during combat. (JP 3-50).
Evasion and Escape Net (E & E Net). A legacy term used by Special
Forces from the 1950s and later describing methodology for returning
evadees, escapees, downed pilots, and others from a hostile area to a
friendly-controlled area. Usually set up by an SFODA or SFODB
Intelligence Sergeant. In a UW environment the Intel Sgt, utililizing
the underground and auxialliary, would set up the E & E Net utilizing UW
and clandestine procedures and processes. Authientification was usually
accomplished through Fingerprint Identification System (FIS), the Dental
Identification System (DIS), and authentification questions. The E & E
Net term was replaced with "Recovery Mechanism (RM) - see definition
below. (Old Timer's Recollections).
High Risk of Isolation (HRI). Personnel whose position and/or
assignment makes them particularly vulnerable to being isolated,
captured, and exploited by adversary forces, terrorists, or unfriendly
Isolated Personnel. U.S. military, Department of Defense civilians
and contractor personnel (and others designated by the President or the
Secretary of Defense) who are separated from their unit (as an
individual or a group) while participating in a U.S. sponsored military
activity or mission and are, or may be, in a situation where they must
survive, evade, resist, or escape. (JP 3-50).
Joint Personnel Recovery Center (JPRC). The primary joint force
organization responsible for planning and coordinating personnel
recovery for military operations within the assigned operationsl area.
Joint Services Training Program. A closely coordinated, specialized
course of instruction conducted at the direction of the Chairman of the
Joint Chiefs of Staff. The program nomenclature is synonymous with
S-V82-A and SERE 245. The Services and CCMDs identify high risk of
isolation personnnel requiring this training. (CJCSI 3270.01B).
Non-Conventional Assisted Recovery (NAR). Personnel recovery
conducted by indigenous or surrogate personnel that are trained,
supported, and led by special operations forces, unconventional warfare
ground and maritime forces, or other government agencie's personnel that
have been specifically trained and directed to establish and operate
indigenous or surrogate infrastructures. (JP 3-50).
Personnel Recovery (PR). The sum of military, diplomatic, and civil
efforts to prepare for and execute the recovery and reintegration of
isolated personnel. (JP 3-50).
Personnel Recovery Coordination Cell (PRCC). The primary joint force
component organization responsible for coordinating and controlling
component personnel recovery missions. (JP 3-50).
Post-Isolation Support Activities (PISA). The debriefing of a non-DoD
recovered person combined with activities to promote or support their
physical and mental health, and other activities that facilitate the
return of the recovered person to military or civilian life as
expeditiously as possible. (CJCSI 3270.01B).
Recovery Mechanism (RM). Designated infrastructure in enemy-held or
hostile areas that is trained and directed to contact, authenticate,
support, move, and exfiltrate U.S. military and other designated
personnel to friendly control through established indigenous or
surrogate networks operating in a clandestine or covert manner. RM's
include, but are not limited to, unconventional assisted recovery
mechanisms and may involve the use of a recovery tema. RM replaces the
DoD term and definition of E&E Nets. (DoDI 2310.6, Oct 13, 2000).
Recovery Team (RT). A entity, group of entities, or organizations
designated, trained, and directed to operate in an overt, covert, or
clandestine manner in enemy-held or hostile areas for a specified period
to contact, authenticate, support, move, and exfiltrate U.S. military
and other designated personnel to friendly control. (DoDI 2310.6, Oct
Survival, Evasion, Resistance, and Escape (SERE). Actions performed
by isolated personnel designed to ensure their health, mobility, safety,
and honor in anticipation of or preparation for their return to friendly
control. (JP 3-50).
Unconventional Assisted Recovery (UAR). NAR conducted by Special
Operations Forces (SOF).
Unconventional Assisted Recovery Coordination Center (UARCC). A
compartmented special operations forces (SOF) facility or organization
staffed by personnel to coordinate, synchronize, and de-conflict
non-conventional assisted recovery (NAR) operations. The UARCC
interfaces and coordinates with the JOC, joint search and rescue
center, component rescue coordination centers (RCCs), SOF RCC, and the
special activities cell. (JP 3-05.1).
Unconventional Assisted Recovery Mechanism (UARM). UARM encompasses
SOF activities related to the creation, coordination, supervision,
command and control, and use of recovery mechanisms either in support of
Combatant Commands, or as directed by the National Command Authorities.
UARM's may involve using an unconventional assisted recovery team. (DoDI
2310.6, Oct 13, 2000).
Unconventional Assisted Recovery Team (UART). A designated SOF RT
that is trained and equipped to operate for a specified period in
hostile territory in support of personnel recovery. (DoDI 2310.6, Oct
News Reports about PR
October 29, 2015.
"How this elite Air Force rescue squadron's mission has evolved in
Afghanistan", Stars and Stripes. A PJ from the 83rd
Expeditionary Rescue Squadron at Bagram Airfield, Afghanistan is
interviewed about his job.
September 3, 2015.
"There is always a first: The 1st Expeditionary Rescue Group Activation",
U.S. Air Forces Central Command. News report about the
activation of the 1st Expeditionary Rescue Group to support Operation
Inherent Resolve and operate across the Levant Area of Operations.
May 28, 2015.
"ANGEL THUNDER's Non-conventional Assisted Recovery in Flagstaff",
Desert Lightning News.
February 21, 2013.
"You're a SEAL Stranded in Hostile Territory: What's in Your Survival
Kit?", by Mark Thompson, Time.com.
Firms Providing PR Training and Services
S3 SOLKOA Survival Systems