Political Warfare is an old term that is seeing a new life. While the
concept of political warfare has not changed since shortly after World
War II; the use of the term has been
gaining in popularity over the past few years.
Definitions of Political Warfare
Political Warfare Definition. By Wikipedia
References on Political Warfare
Kennan, George. 269. Policy Planning Staff Memoradum,
Washington, May 4, 1948. Kennan's State Department policy planning staff
defined the concept of political warfare in response to Soviet Union
aggression and provides recommendations on establishing
organizations that would conduct political warfare. Kennan advocates for
a Directorate for Political Warfare inside the State Department.
USASOC, SOF Support to Political Warfare White Paper, United
States Army Special Operations Command, March 10, 2015.
Papers on Political Warfare
Johnston, Kyle, "Why the United States Needs a National Political
Warfare Center and Regional Embassies", Georgetown Security Studies
Review, Volume 4, Number 2, June 2016, page 84-97.
Boot, Max. Political Warfare: Policy Innovation Memorandum No.
33, Council on Foreign Relations, June 2013. Max Boot states
that the U.S. government is in a long-term struggle for influence in the
Middle East but lacks the tools to contest this struggle for 'hearts and
Chau, Donovon C., Political Warfare in Sub-Saharan Africa: U.S.
Capabilities and Chinese Operations in Ethiopia, Kenya, Nigeria, and
South Africa, March 2007. Strategic Studies Institute.
Corke, Sarah-Jane, "George Kennan and the Inauguration of Political
Warfare", The Journal of Conflict Studies, Vol 26, No 1 (2006),
The Gregg Centre for the Study of War and Society.
Videos about Political Warfare
April 2014. Propaganda, Disinformation, and Dirty Tricks: The
Resurgence of Russian Political Warfare, The Heritage Foundation.
(Video 1 hr 51 mins long panel discussion).
News Reports on Political Warfare
August 4, 2014.
On Not-So-New Warfare: Political Warfare vs Hybrid Threats, By
Frank Hoffman, ISN. Hoffman finds the term 'political warfare' imprecise
and questions George Kennan's understanding of military matters. He
believes that the U.S. military establishment is too narrowly
focused on the increasingly 'traditional' mode of warfare and should pay
more attention to the new (old) types of warfare we are certain to face
- whether called 'political warfare',
'hybrid warfare', or
August 16, 2013.
"Re-Inventing Political Warfare". By Michael P. Noonan, U.S.
News & World Report. The U.S. needs to re-think how it competes on
the world stage.
June 28, 2013.
Political Warfare: Changing America's Approach to the Middle East,
By Max Boot and Michael Doran. Brookings Institute.
June 26, 2005.
"Strategy: Political warfare neglected", U-T San Diego.
Brian Michael Jenkins says that the U.S. is not employing all of its
tools against the threat of terrorism.
September 25, 2001.
"A Plan for Political Warfare", by Zbigniew Brzezinski, The Wall
Street Journal. Brzenzinski says that the U.S. response to the 9/11
attacks must include a military and political response to include use of
Special Forces to conduct covert operations against terrorist